What are Tribunals ?
In general sense, the ‘tribunals’ are not courts of normal jurisdiction, but they have very specific and predefined work area. They are court with a specialization. There are many kinds of tribunals like Central Administrative Tribunal, Debt Recovery Tribunal, Tax Tribunal etc. They act as judicial authority while dealing with certain subject where special knowledge and expertise of the field is desirable. In the absence of these tribunals, matter would be handled by ordinary courts who may not have sufficient expertise to handle the issue in appropriate manner.
Decision by a tribunal can be challenged in higher courts.
Tribunals were added in the Indian Constitution by Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976 as Part XIV-A, which has only two articles viz. 323-A and 323-B. While article 323-A deals with Administrative Tribunals; article 323-B deals with tribunals for other matters.
Types of Tribunals:
- Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT)
- Central Information Commission (CIC)
- Customs, Excise & Service Tax Appellate Tribunal (CESTAT)
- Debt Recovery Tribunal (DRT)
- Income Tax Appellate Tribunal (ITAT)
- Intellectual Property Appellate Board (IPAB)
- National Consumer Dispute Redressal Commission (NCDRC)
- Securities Appellate Tribunal (SAT)
- Telecom Dispute Settlement & Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT)
- National Green Tribunal (NGT)
- Labor Courts, Industrial Tribunals and National Tribunals
- Motor Accidents Claims Tribunals